Data & Publications


Der Staat vergisst die Jungen. Wir investieren in junge Menschen, als Gegenleistung unterstützen sie uns im Alter: Das ist die Idee hinter dem sogenannten Generationenvertrag. Doch die Politik bricht mit diesem Prinzip und bürdet den Jungen laufend neue Belastungen auf. Das kann nicht gut gehen.

Public redistribution in Europe: Between generations or income groups? How much do European welfare states redistribute between generations and income groups. Can we observe a trade-off between the generosity of pensions and support of low-income households?
Hammer, B., Christl, M. & De Poli, S. (2023). Public redistribution in Europe: Between generations or income groups? The Journal of the Economics of Ageing.

What is the economic value of intra-family transfers between generations and genders? We use National Transfer Accounts to measure private transfers within families in Austria, including both monetary transfers and transfers in form of unpaid work.
Hammer, B., Prskawetz, A. (2022). Measuring private transfers between generations and gender: an application of national transfer accounts for Austria 2015. Empirica.

Income trends differ between age groups. Based on data for nine European countries we show the changes in income by age and the contributions of employment, wages an social transfers.
Hammer, B., Spitzer, S. & Prskawetz, A. (2021). Age-Specific Income Trends in Europe: The Role of Employment, Wages, and Social Transfers. Social Indicators Research (2021).

Wie groß sind Unterstützungsleistungen innerhalb der Familien? Beitrag zum Österreichischen Familienbericht.
Binder-Hammer, B., Buber-Ennser, I. (2021) Der Generationenzusammenhalt. In 6. Österreichischer Familienbericht 2009 – 2019.  282 – 313.

Herausforderungen durch den demografischen Wandel in Österreich. Eine Analyse anhand der österreichischen Nationalen Transferkonten.
Binder-Hammer, B. (2021). Die Generationenökonomie. In Budliger H. (eds.) Demographischer Wandel und Wirtschaft.

Economic situation of younger generations worsening. The Wittgenstein Centre of Demography and Global Human Capital published the European Demographic Data Sheet. Beside demographic indicators it includes information about the economic situation of young generations.

What Do Families Contribute to the Social Welfare System? Austrian Institute Blog. Short overview of intergenerational transfers in the family based on National Transfer Accounts data for Austria. Available in English and in German.

Intergenerational transfers & gender. Do men or women contribute more to intergenerational transfers when unpaid work is taken into account? An illustration and analysis of the different roles of men and women in the intergenerational transfer system.
Hammer, B., Spitzer, S., Vargha, L., & Istenič, T. (2020). The gender dimension of intergenerational transfers in Europe. The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, 15, 100234.

Demographischer Wandel – geänderte Rahmenbedingungen für den Sozialstaat? Beitrag zum Österreichischen Sozialbericht.
Binder-Hammer, B., Prskawetz, A. (2021). Demographischer Wandel – geänderte Rahmenbedingungen für
den Sozialstaat.

The broken generational contract. The concept of an generational contract describes the relation between the intergenerational transfers to the child generation and the transfers
to the elderly population. This relation is out of balance in all European countries: (too) little investments in children, (too) high transfers to the elderly population.
Hammer, B., Istenič, T., & Vargha, L. (2018). The Broken Generational Contract in Europe: Generous transfers to the elderly population, low investments in children. Intergenerational Justice Review, 12(1), 21-31.

Sustainability of the public transfer system. The Human Capital Investment Gap contrasts the public net benefits that are expected by the members of a certain cohort in old age with the projected public transfers that are made by the children of this cohort.
Hammer, B., Prskawetz, A., Gál, R. I., Vargha, L., & Istenič, T. (2018). Human Capital Investment and the Sustainability of Public Transfer Systems Across Europe. Journal of Population Ageing.

The rush hour of life. Between age 25 and 45 people face the highest work burden, when unpaid work for children is added to high levels of paid work. However, the total level of work differs considerably between genders, across countries and between different work arrangements.
Zannella, M., Hammer, B., Prskawetz, A., & Sambt, J. (2018). A Quantitative Assessment of the Rush Hour of Life in Austria, Italy and Slovenia. European Journal of Population, 1-26.

Subjective cost of children. How does the birth of a child affect the subjective wellbeing of the parents? Although the reduced labour income is compensated by public transfers in most countries, additional child-related expenditure temporarily reduces the perceived economic wellbeing of parents.
Spitzer, S., Greulich, A., & Hammer, B. (2018). The Subjective Cost of Young Children: A European Comparison. VID Working Paper 12/2018

National Transfer Accounts by Education. Integrating education into the Austrian National Transfer Accounts. How does education affect economic dependency ratios?
Prskawetz, A., & Hammer, B. (2018). Does education matter? – Economic dependency ratios by education. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, 16, 1-24.

Quantifying economic dependency. The demographic dependency ratio measures old and young persons relative to the working age population, interpreting both old and young as “dependent”. We use alternative measures that are based on economic characteristics and better reflect actual economic dependency.
Loichinger, E., Hammer, B., Prskawetz, A., Freiberger, M. & Sambt, J. (2017). Quantifying Economic Dependency. European Journal of Population.

Age- and gender-specific production in Europe. The economic consequences of demographic change depend on age- and gender-specific production levels. These levels differ considerably across European countries . Hammer, B., Prskawetz, A., & Freund, I. (2015). Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison. The Journal of the Economics of Ageing.

Wealth by age. How does the total amount and the type of assets differ between age groups and across countries?
Hammer, B. (2015). The Ownership of Assets and the Role of Age: Age-Specific Household Balance Sheets
for Euro Area Countries.
AGENTA working paper.

Comparing the generational economy in Austria and Sweden.
Hammer, B., & Prskawetz, A. (2013). The public reallocation of resources across age: a comparison of Austria and Sweden. Empirica, 40(3), 541-560.


Most of my research is related to National Transfer Accounts (NTAs), an accounting framework that provides comprehensive and detailed information on the age-patterns of production, consumption and saving, and on public and private transfers between age groups.

Austrian NTAs: Austrian NTAs include information on income, transfers, consumption and saving by age and gender. Included in Austrian NTAs are also production, transfers and consumption through services that are produced by unpaid work. The Austrian NTA data for 2015 and a detailed description is available at: Hammer (2020), National Transfer Accounts for Austria 2015,

Global NTAs: The development of NTAs is coordinated within the global NTA network, a global research network with teams from more than 50 countires. The web page of the NTA network provides detailed information on NTAs. Data data for about 50 countries around the world can be accessed via the database of the NTA project.

European NTAs: Gender-specific NTA datasets for 25 European countries and base year 2010 have been constructed as part of the AGENTA research project. The European NTAs are based on publicly available and harmonised data from Eurostat and can be accessed using the AGENTA data explorer.